Composition: Cu
Crystal System : Cubic
Colours: Coppery-red, brown, blackish-brown
Lustre : Metallic
Hardness (H) : 2.5-3.0
Specific Gravity (S.G) : 8.94-8.95
References: Gebhard (1999)


Common. First, second, and third oxidation zones.


  • Supergene
  • 1st Oxidation Zone
  • 2nd Oxidation Zone
  • 3rd Oxidation Zone

Notable Finds

Fine specimens of native copper were found in the middle of the first oxidation zone on 7 and 8 levels (Klein, 1938). Common as dendritic aggregates and crystal masses in the second oxidation zone (Pinch and Wilson, 1977). As 30 mm crystals on 47 Level in the third oxidation zone.

Paragenetic and General Notes

Exceptionally, as 50 mm cubo-octahedral crystals (Von Bezing et al., 2014). Spinel-law twins are common.

The following minerals are reported to form pseudomorphs after copper:  cuprite (common); malachite (common).