Composition: Pb2+2Pb4+O4
Crystal System : Tetragonal
Colours: Scarlet-red, brown-red
Lustre : Dull, greasy
Hardness (H) : 2.5
Specific Gravity (S.G) : 8.93
References: Gebhard (1999)


Very rare. First oxidation zone (?), and third oxidation zone.


  • Supergene
  • 1st Oxidation Zone
  • 3rd Oxidation Zone

Paragenetic and General Notes

Keller (1984) records that dull red coatings of minium on cerussite were recorded as early as 1919. However, Lombaard et al. (1986) considered the occurrence of minium at Tsumeb to be questionable.

Unequivocally, minium was identified as coatings on cerussite/hydrocerussite in the third oxidation zone 43 Level "Lead Pocket" discovery of 1991. Here, minium occurs as dull-read partial coatings (together with litharge and massicot) on cerussite altering to hydrocerussite (Gebhard, 1999).